Permanent detention camps that held internees from March, 1942 until their closing in 1945 and 1946.
Amache (Granada), Colorado Opened August 24, 1942. Closed October 15, 1945. Peak population 7318. Origin of prisoners: Nothern California coast, West Sacramento Valley, Northern San Joaquin Valley, Los Angeles. 31 Japanese Americans from Amache volunteered and lost their lives in World War II. 120 died here between August 27, 1942 and October 14, 1945. In April, 1944, 36 draft resisters were sent to Tucson, AZ Federal Prison.
Gila River, Arizona Opened July 20, 1942. Closed November 10, 1945. Peak Population 13,348. Origin of prisoners: Sacramento Delta, Fresno County, Los Angeles area. Divided into Canal Camp and Butte Camp. Over 1100 citizens from both camps served in the U.S. Armed Services. The names of 23 war dead are engraved on a plaque here. The State of Arizona accredited the schools in both camps. 97 students graduated from Canal High School in 1944. Nearly 1000 prisoners worked in the 8000 acres of farmland around Canal Camp, growing vegetables and raising livestock.2
Heart Mountain, Wyoming Opened August 12, 1942. Closed November 10, 1945. Peak population 10,767. Origin of prisoners: Santa Clara County, Los Angeles, Central Washington. In November, 1942, Japanese American hospital workers walked out because of pay discrimination between Japanese American and Caucasian American workers. In July, 1944, 63 prisoners who had resisted the draft were convicted and sentenced to 3 years in prison. The camp was made up of 468 buildings, divided into 20 blocks. Each block had 2 laundry-toilet buildings. Each building had 6 rooms each. Rooms ranged in size from 16' x 20' to 20' x 24'. There were 200 administrative employees, 124 soldiers, and 3 officers. Military police were stationed in 9 guard towers, equipped with high beam search lights, and surrounded by barbed wire fencing around the camp.
Jerome, Arkansas Opened October 6, 1942. Closed June 30, 1944. Peak population 8497. Origin of prisoners: Central San Joaquin Valley, San Pedro Bay area. After the Japanese Americans in Jerome were moved to Rohwer and other camps or relocated to the east in June, 1944, Jerome was used to hold German POWs.
Manzanar, California Opened March 21, 1942. Closed November 21, 1945. Peak population 10,046. Origin of prisoners: Los Angeles, San Fernando Valley, San Joaquin County, Bainbridge Island, Washington. It was the first of the ten camps to open -- initially as a processing center.
Minidoka, Idaho Opened August 10, 1942. Closed October 28, 1945. Peak population 9397. Origin of prisoners: Seattle and Pierce County, Washington, Portland and Northwestern Oregon. 73 Minidoka prisoners died in military service.
Poston (aka Colorado River), Arizona Opened May 8, 1942. Closed November 28, 1945. Peak population 17,814. Origin of prisoners: Southern California, Kern County, Fresno, Monterey Bay Area, Sacramento County, Southern Arizona. 24 Japanese Americans held at Poston later lost their lives in World War II. Poston was divided into three separate camps -- I, II, and III.
Rohwer, Arkansas Opened September 18, 1942. Closed November 30, 1945. Peak population 8475. Origin of prisoners: Los Angeles and Stockton.
Topaz (aka Central Utah), Utah Opened September 11, 1942. Closed October 31, 1945. Peak population 8130. Origin of prisoners: San Francisco Bay Area.
Tule Lake, California Opened May 27, 1942. Closed March 20, 1946. Peak population 18,789. Origin of prisoners: Sacramento area, Southwestern Oregon, and Western Washington; later, segregated internees were brought in from all West Coast states and Hawaii. One of the most turbulent camps -- prisoners held frequent protest demonstrations and strikes.
TEMPORARY DETENTION CENTERS
America and the West, outside of communist countries and their overall "bloc," run places resembling this all over the world. What is the point to them exactly? Are they meant to hold refugees in the year 2015? Or an overflow of people?
Temporary detention centers were used from late March, 1942 until mid-October, 1942, when internees were moved to the ten more permanent internment prisons. These temporary sites were mainly located on large fairgrounds or race tracks in visible and public locations. It would be impossible for local populace to say that they were unaware of the removal and imprisonment of Japanese Americans.
Tanforan Temporary Detention Center, San Bruno, CA
This one looks like it could be on MAJOR railroad lines. Too easy to ship large amounts of people into here from other places, maybe from all over the world. If places get overbuilt like North Korea, that sort of thing could be in the future of the USA and many other locations on our beautiful planet.
Fresno, California First inmate arrival May 6, 1942. Last inmate departure October 30, 1942. Peak population 5120.
Manzanar, California First inmate arrival March 21, 1942. Peak population (before June 1, 1942) 9666. Before it was leased from the City of Los Angeles, Manzanar was once ranch and farm land until it reverted to desert conditions. Manzanar was transfered from the WCCA to WRA on June 1, 1942, and converted into a "relocation camp."
Marysville, California First inmate arrival May 8, 1942. Last inmate departure June 29, 1942. Peak population 2451.
Mayer, Arizona First inmate arrival May 7, 1942. Last inmate departure June 2, 1942. Peak population 245. Mayer was a camp abaondoned by the Civilian Conservation Corp.
Merced, California First inmate arrival May 6, 1942. Last inmate departure September 15, 1942. Peak population 4508.
Pinedale, California First inmate arrival May 7, 1942. Last inmate departure July 23, 1942. Peak population 4792. Pinedale was the previous site of a mill.
Pomona, California First inmate arrival May 7, 1942. Last inmate departure August 24, 1942. Peak population 5434.
Portland, Oregon First inmate arrival May 2, 1942. Last inmate departure September 10, 1942. Peak population 3676. Portland used the Pacific International Live Stock Exposition Facilities to hold detainees.
Puyallup, Washington First inmate arrival April 28, 1942. Last inmate departure September 12, 1942. Peak population 7390.5
Sacramento, California First inmate arrival May 6, 1942. Last inmate departure June 26, 1942. Peak population 4739. Sacramento used a former migrant camp.
Salinas, California First inmate arrival April 27, 1942. Last inmate departure July 4, 1942. Peak population 3594.
Santa Anita, California First inmate arrival March 27, 1942. Last inmate departure October 27, 1942. Peak population 18,719.
Stockton, California First inmate arrival May 10, 1942. Last inmate departure October 17, 1942. Peak population 4271.
Tanforan, San Bruno, California First inmate arrival April 28, 1942. Last inmate departure October 13, 1942. Peak population 7816. Tanforan is now a large shopping mall by the same name.
Tulare, California First inmate arrival April 20, 1942. Last inmate departure September 4, 1942. Peak population 4978.
Turlock, Byron, California First inmate arrival April 30, 1942. Last inmate departure August 12, 1942. Peak population 3662.
JUSTICE DEPARTMENT INTERNMENT CAMPS
27 U.S. Department of Justice Camps (most at Crystal City, Texas, but also Seagoville, Texas; Kooskia, Idaho; Santa Fe, NM; and Ft. Missoula, Montana) were used to incarcerate 2,260 "dangerous persons" of Japanese ancestry taken from 12 Latin American countries by the US State and Justice Departments. Approximately 1,800 were Japanese Peruvians. The U.S. government wanted them as bargaining chips for potential hostage exchanges with Japan, and actually did use. After the war, 1400 were prevented from returning to their former country, Peru. Over 900 Japanese Peruvians were deported to Japan. 300 fought it in the courts and were allowed to settle in Seabrook, NJ. Efforts to bring justice to the Japanese Peruvians are still active; for information contact Grace Shimizu, 510-528-7288.
Santa Fe, NM
Crystal City, TX
Ft. Missoula, Montana Internment Camp
Out in the wilds of Montana, in a secretive place.
What is one of these DOING in Montana, when you think about it? It's not an Indian Reservation. And what would it be doing being a Japanese American internment camp, in many ways? What EXACTLY is the point to this strange facility? It's like its sitting there, WAITING for something to happen again. Something gigantic, like shipping relocated Native Americans there from Indian reservations. Or Mexicans from prisons in the American South West, or people from mental institutions spread around the USA, or anyone who is a refugee from anywhere else in the world. Political prisoners, even CROSSOVER prisoners entering the West from Communist countries and Eastern Bloc countries, even though that may sound odd.
This camp is a worry to those who fear that the USA may be headed straight toward martial law and modern day concentration camps, whether under a Democratic or Republican administration. An attempt at the New World Order, or something strange coming from the enemy via Russia, Saudi Arabia, or the United States itself and the powers that be. I don't know whether or not this will ever be needed, or if it is something necessary. It is something people should pay attention to, and perhaps deal with instead of just looking away, as it could be possible that people "following orders" could just send and send and send people there until the human population of our planet is rather...decimated.
Whether or not this is the answer, the Final Solution, to our problems of overpopulation, environmental pollution, and nuclear proliferation, annihilation and mutually assured destruction as well as nuclear half lives and nuclear "pep-tides" or whatever is produced through nuclear power plants, experiments and major accidents, it might be worth looking into at least. I don't know what can be done, if this is going where I think it might be going someday. It may at best prevent us from some other hideous nonsense, but it might mean the gradual destruction of the human species for all time. What do you think?